# 2022 Top Ten of Polemic for Mathematics

Vector (mathematics and physics)
In mathematics and physics, a vector is an element of a vector space. For many specific vector spaces, the vectors have received specific names, which are listed below. In general, a Euclidean vector is a geometric object with both length and direction. Such vectors can be added to each other or scaled using vector algebra. Correspondingly, an ensemble of vectors is called a vector space. These objects are the subject of linear algebra and can be characterized by their dimension
Second
The second is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI), commonly understood and historically defined as 1⁄86400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each. Analog clocks and watches often have sixty tick marks on their faces, representing seconds, and a "second hand" to mark the passage of time in seconds. Digital clocks and watches often have a two-digit seconds counter. The second is also
Tropical year
A tropical year is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the sky of a celestial body of the solar system such as the Earth, completing a full cycle of seasons; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice. It is the time of a year as a unit of tropical solar calendars and calendar eras which use tropical solar calendars. The solar year is one type of astronomical year and particular orbital period
Average human height by country
Below are average adult human heights by country or geographical region. The original studies and sources should be consulted for details on methodology and the exact populations measured, surveyed, or considered
H4 polytope
In 4-dimensional geometry, there are 15 uniform polytopes with H4 symmetry. Two of these, the 120-cell and 600-cell, are regular
Knot (unit)
The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels
Up tack
The up tack or falsum is a constant symbol used to represent:The truth value 'false', or a logical constant denoting a proposition in logic that is always false. The bottom element in lattice theory, which also represents absurdum when used for logical semantics The bottom type in type theory, which also represents absurdum under the Curry–Howard
Activation function
In artificial neural networks, the activation function of a node defines the output of that node given an input or set of inputs. A standard integrated circuit can be seen as a digital network of activation functions that can be "ON" (1) or "OFF" (0), depending on input. This is similar to the linear perceptron in neural networks. However, only nonlinear activation functions allow such networks to compute nontrivial problems using only a small number of nodes, and such activation functions are called
Tally marks
Tally marks, also called hash marks, are a unary numeral system. They are a form of numeral used for counting. They are most useful in counting or tallying ongoing results, such as the score in a game or sport, as no intermediate results need to be erased or discarded
Euclidean space
Euclidean space is the fundamental space of classical geometry. Originally, it was the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, but in modern mathematics there are Euclidean spaces of any nonnegative integer dimension, including the three-dimensional space and the Euclidean plane. It was introduced by the Ancient Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria, and the qualifier Euclidean is used to distinguish it from other spaces that were later discovered in physics and modern mathematics