# 2017 Top Ten of Polemic for Mathematics

Dot plot (statistics)
A dot chart or dot plot is a statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fairly simple scale, typically using filled in circles. There are two common, yet very different, versions of the dot chart. The first has been used in hand-drawn graphs to depict distributions going back to 1884. The other version is described by William S. Cleveland as an alternative to the bar chart, in which dots are used to depict the quantitative values associated with categorical variables
Number sentence
In mathematics education, a number sentence is an equation or inequality expressed using numbers and mathematical symbols. The term is used in primary level mathematics teaching in the US, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa
Table of prime factors
The tables contain the prime factorization of the natural numbers from 1 to 1000
Rational number
In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, a numerator p and a non-zero denominator q. For example, âˆ’3/7 is a rational number, as is every integer. The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by a boldface Q ; it was thus denoted in 1895 by Giuseppe Peano after quoziente, Italian for "quotient", and first appeared in Bourbaki's
Linear equation
In mathematics, a linear equation is an equation that may be put in the form where are the variables, and are the coefficients, which are often real numbers. The coefficients may be considered as parameters of the equation, and may be arbitrary expressions, provided they do not contain any of the variables. To yield a meaningful equation, the coefficients are required to not all be zero
Consistent and inconsistent equations
In mathematics and particularly in algebra, a linear or nonlinear system of equations is called consistent if there is at least one set of values for the unknowns that satisfies each equation in the systemâ€”that is, when substituted into each of the equations, they make each equation hold true as an identity. In contrast, a linear or non linear equation system is called inconsistent if there is no set of values for the unknowns that satisfies all of the equations
104 (number)
104 is the natural number following 103 and preceding 105
Remainder
In mathematics, the remainder is the amount "left over" after performing some computation. In arithmetic, the remainder is the integer "left over" after dividing one integer by another to produce an integer quotient. In algebra of polynomials, the remainder is the polynomial "left over" after dividing one polynomial by another. The modulo operation is the operation that produces such a remainder when given a dividend and divisor
Affine cipher
The affine cipher is a type of monoalphabetic substitution cipher, where each letter in an alphabet is mapped to its numeric equivalent, encrypted using a simple mathematical function, and converted back to a letter. The formula used means that each letter encrypts to one other letter, and back again, meaning the cipher is essentially a standard substitution cipher with a rule governing which letter goes to which. As such, it has the weaknesses of all substitution ciphers. Each letter is enciphered with
Rayl
A Rayl, rayl or Rayleigh is one of two units of specific acoustic impedance or, equivalently, characteristic acoustic impedance; one an MKS unit, and the other a CGS unit. The units are named after John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, and not to be confused with the rayleigh unit of photon flux, used to measure airglow, and named after his son, Robert John Strutt, 4th Baron Rayleigh. It has the same dimensions as momentum per volume