2016 Top Ten of Polemic for Nature

Mid-ocean ridge
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics. It typically has a depth of about 2,600 meters (8,500 ft) and rises about 2,000 meters (6,600 ft) above the deepest portion of an ocean basin. This feature is where seafloor spreading takes place along a divergent plate boundary. The rate of seafloor spreading determines the morphology of the crest of the mid-ocean ridge and its width in an ocean basin. The production of new seafloor and oceanic lithosphere results from
History of measurement
The earliest recorded systems of weights and measures originate in the 3rd or 4th millennium BC. Even the very earliest civilizations needed measurement for purposes of agriculture, construction and trade. Early standard units might only have applied to a single community or small region, with every area developing its own standards for lengths, areas, volumes and masses. Often such systems were closely tied to one field of use, so that volume measures used, for example, for dry grains were unrelated to
Oceanic zone
The oceanic zone is typically defined as the area of the ocean lying beyond the continental shelf, but operationally is often referred to as beginning where the water depths drop to below 200 meters, seaward from the coast into the open ocean with its Pelagic zone
List of species described by the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark expedition Meriwether Lewis collected many hundreds of plants on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. All of the plants Lewis collected in the first months of the Expedition were cached near the Missouri River to be retrieved on the return journey. Unfortunately, the cache was completely destroyed by Missouri flood waters. Other collections were lost in varying ways, and we now have only 237 plants Lewis collected, 226 of which are in the Philadelphia Herbarium. Lewis hired Frederick Pursh for
Plant reproduction
Plant reproduction is the production of new offspring in plants, which can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction produces offspring by the fusion of gametes, resulting in offspring genetically different from either parent. Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes. The resulting clonal plants are genetically identical to the parent plant and each other, unless mutations occur
Air mass
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content. Air masses cover many hundreds or thousands of miles, and adapt to the characteristics of the surface below them. They are classified according to latitude and their continental or maritime source regions. Colder air masses are termed polar or arctic, while warmer air masses are deemed tropical. Continental and superior air masses are dry while maritime and monsoon air masses are moist. Weather fronts
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or even another bay. A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a small, circular bay with a narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity
Frontal lobe
The frontal lobe is the largest of the four major lobes of the brain in mammals, and is located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere. It is parted from the parietal lobe by a groove between tissues called the central sulcus and from the temporal lobe by a deeper groove called the lateral sulcus. The most anterior rounded part of the frontal lobe is known as the frontal pole, one of the three poles of the cerebrum
Virtual image
In optics, an image is defined as the collection of focus points of light rays coming from an object. A real image is the collection of focus points made by converging rays, while a virtual image is the collection of focus points made by extensions of diverging rays. In other words, a virtual image is found by tracing real rays that emerge from an optical device backward to perceived or apparent origins of ray divergences. In diagrams of optical systems, virtual rays are conventionally represented by
Gas tungsten arc welding
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area and electrode are protected from oxidation or other atmospheric contamination by an inert shielding gas. A filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, or fusion welds do not require it. When helium is used, this is known as heliarc welding. A constant-current welding power supply produces