# 2014 Top Ten of Polemic for Mathematics

Ring network
A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node – a ring. Data travels from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet
Babylonian mathematics
Babylonian mathematics are the mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia, from the days of the early Sumerians to the centuries following the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. Babylonian mathematical texts are plentiful and well edited. With respect to time they fall in two distinct groups: one from the Old Babylonian period, the other mainly Seleucid from the last three or four centuries BC. With respect to content, there is scarcely any difference between the two groups of texts
Multiple (mathematics)
In science, a multiple is the product of any quantity and an integer. In other words, for the quantities a and b, it can be said that b is a multiple of a if b = na for some integer n, which is called the multiplier. If a is not zero, this is equivalent to saying that is an integer
Therm
The therm is a non-SI unit of heat energy equal to 100,000 British thermal units (BTU). It is approximately the energy content of 100 cubic feet – often referred to as 1 CCF – of natural gas at standard temperature and pressure. As there are differing definitions of the BTU in use around the world, there are various slightly differing values for the energy content of the therm
Perimeter
A perimeter is a closed path that encompasses, surrounds, or outlines either a two dimensional shape or a one-dimensional length. The perimeter of a circle or an ellipse is called its circumference
Five dots tattoo
The five dots tattoo is a tattoo of five dots arranged in a quincunx, usually on the outer surface of the hand, between the thumb and the index finger. The tattoo has different meanings in different cultures—it has been variously interpreted as a fertility symbol, a reminder of sayings on how to treat women or police, a recognition symbol among the Romani people, a group of close friends, standing alone in the world, or time spent in prison. Thomas Edison had this pattern tattooed on his forearm. The
Polyalphabetic cipher
A polyalphabetic cipher is any cipher based on substitution, using multiple substitution alphabets. The Vigenère cipher is probably the best-known example of a polyalphabetic cipher, though it is a simplified special case. The Enigma machine is more complex but is still fundamentally a polyalphabetic substitution cipher
124 (number)
124 is the natural number following 123 and preceding 125
Epact
The epact, used to be described by medieval computists as the age of a phase of the Moon in days on 22 March; in the newer Gregorian calendar, however, the epact is reckoned as the age of the ecclesiastical moon on 1 January. Its principal use is in determining the date of Easter by computistical methods. It varies from year to year, because of the difference between the solar year of 365–366 days and the lunar year of 354–355 days
Grid method multiplication
The grid method of multiplication is an introductory approach to multi-digit multiplication calculations that involve numbers larger than ten. Because it is often taught in mathematics education at the level of primary school or elementary school, this algorithm is sometimes called the grammar school method