# 2007 Top Ten of Polemic for Mathematics

Square number
In mathematics, a square number or perfect square is an integer that is the square of an integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself. For example, 9 is a square number, since it equals 32 and can be written as 3 × 3
Logical matrix
A logical matrix, binary matrix, relation matrix, Boolean matrix, or (0,1) matrix is a matrix with entries from the Boolean domain B = {0, 1}. Such a matrix can be used to represent a binary relation between a pair of finite sets
Comprehension (logic)
In logic, the comprehension of an object is the totality of intensions, that is, attributes, characters, marks, properties, or qualities, that the object possesses, or else the totality of intensions that are pertinent to the context of a given discussion. This is the correct technical term for the whole collection of intensions of an object, but it is common in less technical usage to see 'intension' used for both the composite and the primitive ideas
Symbolic method
In mathematics, the symbolic method in invariant theory is an algorithm developed by Arthur Cayley, Siegfried Heinrich Aronhold, Alfred Clebsch, and Paul Gordan in the 19th century for computing invariants of algebraic forms. It is based on treating the form as if it were a power of a degree one form, which corresponds to embedding a symmetric power of a vector space into the symmetric elements of a tensor product of copies of it
Scale factor
A scale factor is usually a decimal which scales, or multiplies, some quantity. In the equation y = Cx, C is the scale factor for x. C is also the coefficient of x, and may be called the constant of proportionality of y to x. For example, doubling distances corresponds to a scale factor of two for distance, while cutting a cake in half results in pieces with a scale factor for volume of one half. The basic equation for it is image over preimage
Relative term
A relative term is a term that makes two or more distinct references to objects. A relative term is typically expressed in ordinary language by means of a phrase with explicit or implicit blanks. Examples:__ loves __ is the same object as __ __ is giver of __ to
Pareto analysis
Pareto analysis is a formal technique useful where many possible courses of action are competing for attention. In essence, the problem-solver estimates the benefit delivered by each action, then selects a number of the most effective actions that deliver a total benefit reasonably close to the maximal possible one
Perimeter
A perimeter is a closed path that encompasses, surrounds, or outlines either a two dimensional shape or a one-dimensional length. The perimeter of a circle or an ellipse is called its circumference
Dependent and independent variables
Dependent and Independent variables are variables in mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences. Dependent variables receive this name because, in an experiment, their values are studied under the supposition or demand that they depend, by some law or rule, on the values of other variables. Independent variables, in turn, are not seen as depending on any other variable in the scope of the experiment in question. In this sense, some common independent variables are time, space
Relation construction
In logic and mathematics, relation construction and relational constructibility have to do with the ways that one relation is determined by an indexed family or a sequence of other relations, called the relation dataset. The relation in the focus of consideration is called the faciendum. The relation dataset typically consists of a specified relation over sets of relations, called the constructor, the factor, or the method of construction, plus a specified set of other relations, called the faciens, the