2004 Top Ten of Polemic for Nature

In biological classification, a subfamily is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension is the difference in electric potential between two points, which is defined as the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points. In the International System of Units, the derived unit for voltage is named volt. In SI units, work per unit charge is expressed as joules per coulomb, where 1 volt = 1 joule per 1 coulomb. The old SI definition for volt used power and current; starting in 1990, the
Bloch's theorem
In condensed matter physics, Bloch's theorem states that solutions to the Schrödinger equation in a periodic potential take the form of a plane wave modulated by a periodic function. Mathematically, they are written
A frenulum is a small fold of tissue that secures the motion of a mobile organ in the body
Multituberculata is an extinct order of rodent-like mammals with a fossil record spanning over 120 million years. They first appeared in the Middle Jurassic, and reached a peak diversity during the Cretaceous. They eventually declined from the late Paleocene onwards, disappearing from the known fossil record in the late Eocene. They are the most diverse order of Mesozoic mammals with more than 200 species known, ranging from mouse-sized to beaver-sized. These species occupied a diversity of ecological
Large intestine
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored in the rectum as feces before being removed by defecation. The colon is the longest portion of the large intestine, and the terms are often used interchangeably but most sources define the large intestine as the combination of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. Some other sources exclude the
The family Psittacidae or parrots is one of three families of true parrots. It comprises the roughly 10 species of subfamily Psittacinae and 157 of subfamily Arinae, as well as several species that have gone extinct in recent centuries. Some of the most iconic birds in the world are represented here, such as the blue-and-gold macaw among the New World parrots and the grey parrot among the Old World parrots
Guided rat
A remotely guided rat, popularly called a ratbot or robo-rat, is a rat with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and sensorimotor cortex of its brain. They were developed in 2002 by Sanjiv Talwar and John Chapin at the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center. The rats wear a small electronics backpack containing a radio receiver and electrical stimulator. The rat receives remote stimulation in the sensorimotor cortex via its backpack that causes the rat to feel a
The opalines are a small group of peculiar heterokonts, currently assigned to the family Opalinidae, in the order Slopalinida. Their name is derived from the opalescent appearance of these microscopic organisms when illuminated with full sunlight. Most opalines live as endocommensals in the large intestine and cloaca of anurans, though they are sometimes found in fish, reptiles, molluscs and insects. The unusual features of the opalines, first observed by Antoine van Leeuwenhoek in 1683, has led to much
Pneumonic plague
Pneumonic plague is a severe lung infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Symptoms include fever, headache, shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing. They typically start about three to seven days after exposure. It is one of three forms of plague, the other two being septicemic plague and bubonic plague