# 2001 Top Ten of Conflict for Mathematics

List of algorithms
The following is a list of algorithms along with one-line descriptions for each
Discrete Fourier transform
In mathematics, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) converts a finite sequence of equally-spaced samples of a function into a same-length sequence of equally-spaced samples of the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), which is a complex-valued function of frequency. The interval at which the DTFT is sampled is the reciprocal of the duration of the input sequence. An inverse DFT is a Fourier series, using the DTFT samples as coefficients of complex sinusoids at the corresponding DTFT frequencies. It has
Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes such topics as numbers, formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and the spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes. There is no general consensus about its exact scope or epistemological status
Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a finite sequence of rigorous well-defined instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. By making use of artificial intelligence, algorithms can perform automated deductions and use mathematical and logical tests to divert the code execution through various routes. Using human characteristics as descriptors of machines
Integer
An integer is colloquially defined as a number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, 5+1/2, and √2 are not
Insertion sort
Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted array one item at a time. It is much less efficient on large lists than more advanced algorithms such as quicksort, heapsort, or merge sort. However, insertion sort provides several advantages:Simple implementation: Jon Bentley shows a three-line C++ version, and a five-line optimized version Efficient for (quite) small data sets, much like other quadratic sorting algorithms More efficient in practice than most other simple quadratic
Fundamental theorem of arithmetic
In mathematics, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, also called the unique factorization theorem and prime factorization theorem, states that every integer greater than 1 can be represented uniquely as a product of prime numbers, up to the order of the factors. For example
Computational complexity theory
Computational complexity theory focuses on classifying computational problems according to their resource usage, and relating these classes to each other. A computational problem is a task solved by a computer. A computation problem is solvable by mechanical application of mathematical steps, such as an algorithm
Complex number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that contains the real numbers and a specific element denoted i, called the imaginary unit, and satisfying the equation i2 = −1. Moreover, every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, i was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a + bi, a is called the real part and b is called the imaginary part. The set of
Katal
The katal is the unit of catalytic activity in the International System of Units (SI). It is a derived SI unit for quantifying the catalytic activity of enzymes and other catalysts