Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.
Spring and Autumn period
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BCE which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of
Sang Hongyang
Sang Hongyang was a Chinese politician. He was a prominent official of the Han Dynasty, who served Emperor Wu of Han and his successor Emperor Zhao. He is famous for his economic policies during the reign of Emperor Wu, the best known of which include the
Three Huan
The Three Huan refers to three aristocratic clans, all descendants of Duke Huan of Lu, in the State of Lu, which dominated the government affairs, displacing the power of the dukes, for nearly three centuries during the Spring and Autumn period. They are
Li Kui (legalist)
Li Kui was a Chinese hydraulic engineer, philosopher, and politician. He served as government minister and court advisor to Marquis Wen in the state of Wei. In 407 BC, he wrote the Book of Law, which was the basis for the codified laws of the Qin and Han
Siege of De'an
The siege of De'an (德安之戰) was fought as part of the Jin-Song Wars of China in 1132, during the Jin invasion of Hubei and Shaanxi. The battle between the besiegers, a group of rebels led by Li Heng and the Song Chinese defenders is important in
Nine-rank system
The nine-rank system, also known as the nine grade controller system, was a system used to categorize and evaluate officials, and potential entrants into officialdom, in Imperial China. Created in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms, it was in
Jisi Incident
The Jisi Incident was a military conflict between the Later Jin dynasty and the Ming dynasty, named because it happened in 1629, a jisi year according to the Chinese sexagenary cycle. In the winter of 1629 Hong Taiji bypassed Ming's northeastern defenses
Chinese armour
Chinese armour was predominantly lamellar from the Warring States period onward, prior to which animal parts such as rhinoceros hide, rawhide, and turtle shells were used for protection. Lamellar armour was supplemented by scale armour since the Warring
Wey (state)
Wei, commonly spelled Wey to distinguish from the contemporary larger Wei (魏) state, was an ancient Chinese state that was founded in the early Western Zhou dynasty and rose to prominence during the Spring and Autumn period. Its rulers were of the
Chalceus guaporensis
Chalceus guaporensis is a species of freshwater fish in the family Chalceidae that inhabits northern South America. Alongside C. epakros and C. spilogyros, it was added to the genus Chalceus in the year 2004