A tughra is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. Inspired by the tamgha, it was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign. Very elaborate decorated versions were created for important documents that were also works of art in the tradition of Ottoman illumination, such as the example of Suleiman the Magnificent in the gallery below.
Kemani Tatyos Ekserciyan
Tatyos Eñserciyan, or Tatyos Efendi, was a famous composer of classical Turkish music, and his works continue to be among the most played and revered examples of the genre
Georgios Zariphis
Georgios Y. Zariphis, also known as Yorgo Zarifi, was a prominent Ottoman Greek banker and financier. He was also well known as a prominent benefactor of his time. Zariphis met Sultan Abdul Hamid II when the latter was a shahzade with a low expectation of
Mıgırdiç Margosyan
Mıgırdiç Margosyan was a Turkish Armenian language-writer
Artin Penik
Artin Penik was a Turkish-Armenian who committed suicide by self-immolation in protest of the Esenboga airport attack by the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia on August 10, 1982
Hagop Kazazian Pasha
Hagop Kazazian Pasha (1836–1891) was a high-ranking Ottoman Armenian official, who served as the Minister of Finance and the Minister of the Privy Treasury during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Famed at the time for his loyalty, he received a state
Arat Dink
Arat Dink is a Turkish journalist and the executive editor of Agos, a bilingual Turkish-Armenian weekly newspaper published in Istanbul. He is the son of Rakel Dink and Hrant Dink, the former editor-in-chief of the same paper, who was murdered by Ogün
List of Ottoman Ministers of Finance
This is a list of the top officials in charge of the finances of the Ottoman Empire, called Defterdar between the 14th and 19th centuries and Maliye Naziri between 19th and 20th centuries. They were originally in charge of the defters in the Ottoman
Hampartsoum Limondjian
Hampartsoum Limondjian was an Ottoman Armenian composer of Armenian church and classical music, as well as Ottoman classical music, and musical theorist who developed the "Hamparsum" notation system. The system was the main music notation for Western
2004 Cupa României (women's football)
The 2004 Cupa României was the 1st annual Romanian women's football knockout tournaments
Nikolaos Rokas
Nikolaos Rokas was a Greek soldier who rose to the rank of lieutenant general