A cough is a sudden expulsion of air through the large breathing passages that can help clear them of fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. As a protective reflex, coughing can be repetitive with the cough reflex following three phases: an inhalation, a forced exhalation against a closed glottis, and a violent release of air from the lungs following opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.
Rectus sheath hematoma
A rectus sheath hematoma is an accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. It causes abdominal pain with or without a mass
Volume expander
A volume expander is a type of intravenous therapy that has the function of providing volume for the circulatory system. It may be used for fluid replacement or during surgery to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery
Arterial embolism
Arterial embolism is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part due to an embolus adhering to the wall of an artery blocking the flow of blood, the major type of embolus being a blood clot (thromboembolism). Sometimes, pulmonary embolism
Pyoderma means any skin disease that is pyogenic. These include superficial bacterial infections such as impetigo, impetigo contagiosa, ecthyma, folliculitis, Bockhart's impetigo, furuncle, carbuncle, tropical ulcer, etc. Autoimmune conditions include
Heel pad syndrome
Heel pad syndrome is a pain that occurs in the center of the heel. It is typically due to atrophy of the fat pad which makes up the heel. Risk factors include obesity. Other conditions with similar symptoms include plantar fasciitis. Treatment includes
Warfarin necrosis
Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is a condition in which skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis occurs due to acquired protein C deficiency following treatment with anti-vitamin K anticoagulants
Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency
Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency (THBD, BH4D) is a rare metabolic disorder that increases the blood levels of phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is an amino acid obtained normally through the diet, but can be harmful if excess levels build up, causing
Quadriceps tendon rupture
A quadriceps tendon rupture is a tear of the tendon that runs from the quadriceps muscle to the top of the knee cap
Metastatic liver disease
A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply. Metastatic tumors in the liver are 20 times more common
Gunnar Karlsson
Gunnar Karlsson was an Icelandic historian. Gunnar shaped methodological teaching at the University of Iceland when he started working there in the seventies and wrote a number of textbooks in history for all school levels as well as other publications