In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a finite sequence of well-defined instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations, data processing, automated reasoning, automated decision-making and other tasks. In contrast, a heuristic is an approach to problem solving that may not be fully specified or may not guarantee correct or optimal results, especially in problem domains where there is no well-defined correct or optimal result.
General recursive function
In mathematical logic and computer science, a general recursive function, partial recursive function, or μ-recursive function is a partial function from natural numbers to natural numbers that is "computable" in an intuitive sense. If the function is
Propositional formula
In propositional logic, a propositional formula is a type of syntactic formula which is well formed and has a truth value. If the values of all variables in a propositional formula are given, it determines a unique truth value. A propositional formula may
Higher-order logic
In mathematics and logic, a higher-order logic is a form of predicate logic that is distinguished from first-order logic by additional quantifiers and, sometimes, stronger semantics. Higher-order logics with their standard semantics are more expressive
Proof of impossibility
In mathematics, a proof of impossibility, also known as negative proof, proof of an impossibility theorem, or negative result is a proof demonstrating that a particular problem cannot be solved as described in the claim, or that a particular set of
Computability theory
Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, computer science, and the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees. The field has since expanded
Minimal counterexample
In mathematics, a minimal counterexample is the smallest example which falsifies a claim, and a proof by minimal counterexample is a method of proof which combines the use of a minimal counterexample with the ideas of proof by induction and proof by
Existence theorem
In mathematics, an existence theorem is a theorem which asserts the existence of a certain object. It might be a statement which begins with the phrase "there exist(s)", or it might be a universal statement whose last quantifier is existential. In the
Kleene's T predicate
In computability theory, the T predicate, first studied by mathematician Stephen Cole Kleene, is a particular set of triples of natural numbers that is used to represent computable functions within formal theories of arithmetic. Informally, the T
Abstract rewriting system
In mathematical logic and theoretical computer science, an abstract rewriting system is a formalism that captures the quintessential notion and properties of rewriting systems. In its simplest form, an ARS is simply a set together with a binary relation
Chalceus guaporensis
Chalceus guaporensis is a species of freshwater fish in the family Chalceidae that inhabits northern South America. Alongside C. epakros and C. spilogyros, it was added to the genus Chalceus in the year 2004